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语法精讲及练习 | 一般将来时的用法

发表时间:2020-10-06 09:49

如何学习时态?对中学生来说,最好还是从各个时态的基本概念、基本形式和基本用法学起。在过了这一阶段之后,再放开步伐,通过大量的听、读和笔头实践,获得感性的知识。现在,我们就从最基本的概念、形式和用法等方面来总结一种新的时态——一般将来时


1

概念引入

1.The spaceship will leave the Earth at 9   a. m. 宇宙飞船将在上午9:00离开地球。
2.It’ll take us to the Moon.它将把我们带到月球。
3.When we arrive,I’m going to walk on the Moon.
当我们到达时,我将在月球上行走。
4.Are the dogs going to come with us? 狗和我们一起来吗?
句1,2含有助动词will,句3,4含有be going to结构,这四句话都是一般将来时。本单元我们主要学习will和be going to构成的一般将来时。

2

用法讲解

一、基本概念
表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与一些表示将来的时间状语连用。例如:
I am going to / will watch a football match on TV this evening.
今天晚上我将在电视上看一场足球比赛。

二、基本结构
一般将来时的结构一般由“助动词will+动词原形”或“be going to+动词原形”构成。will是助动词,不能独立使用,前面的主语不管是什么人称,其后总用will。在名词或代词后常简缩为’ll,并与主语连写在一起。will的否定形式是will not,缩略形式是won’t。

三、时间状语
一般将来时常用的时间状语:tomorrow, tonight, the day after tomorrow, next week (month, year …), this afternoon, evening …, soon, in the year 2010, in + 时间段等。例如:
Tom will come back in two days.汤姆两天后回来。
I’ll be more careful from now on.从现在起我会更加小心的。

四、基本句型
(1)肯定句
1)主语+will+动词原形+其他
He will come here at once.他马上来这儿。
2)主语+be going to+动词原形+其他
We are going to climb the hill this afternoon.
我们打算今天下午去爬山。

  (2)否定句
1)主语+ will + not + 动词原形+其他
He will not(won’t)go to the party.他不去参加聚会。
2)主语+be + not + going to+动词原形+其他
He isn’t going to do morning exercises tomorrow.明天他不去做早操。

(3)一般疑问句
1)Will+主语+动词原形+其他?
Will he help you with your English? 他会帮助你学习英语吗?
2)Be动词(Am,Is,Are)+主语+going to+动词原形+其他?
Are you going to play computer games tomorrow afternoon?
你打算明天下午玩电脑游戏吗?

(4)特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句?
—What will the students have for lunch today? 学生们今天午饭吃什么?
—They will have bread.他们将吃面包。

五、注意的问题:
(1)主语是第一人称I; we 时,常用助动词 shall + 动词原形。例如:
We shall be very happy if you accept it.
如果你接受了它,我们将会很高兴。
I shall write you a letter next month.
下个月我会给你写信。
(2)在问对方是否愿意, 或表示客气的邀请时,常用 will。例如:
Will you go to the zoo with me? 你愿意和我去动物园吗?
Will you please open the door? 请打开门好吗?
(3)在表示建议或征求对方意见时,用 shall。例如:
Shall we go at ten?   我们在10:00走好吗?

六、There be句型与含有will和be going to的一般将来时
(1)There be句型与含有will的一般将来时基本结构:
There will be +名词+其他成分,例如:
There will be only one country in the future. 未来会只有一个国家。

(2)There be句型与含有be going to的一般将来时基本结构:
There is / are going to be +名词+其他成分(注意句型中going to 后面的be不能改为have。) 常用来表示将有某事发生。例如:
There is going to be a football match next Saturday in our school.
下周六我们学校将有一场足球比赛。

注意:无论后面加单数名词或名词的复数形式,be都必须用原形。

七、be going to与will 的区别:
(1)be going to 表示近期、眼下就要发生的事情,will 表示的将来时间则较远一些。例如:
He is going to write a letter tonight. 今晚他打算写一封信。
He will write a book one day. 有一天他会写一本书。

(2)be going to 表示根据主观判断将来肯定发生的事情,will表示客观上将来势必发生的事情。例如:
I think our team is going to win the game. 我认为我们队会赢得比赛。
He will be twenty years old next year. 明年他就20岁了。

(3)be going to含有“计划,准备”的意思,而will则没有这个意思。例如:
I’m going to spend my holiday in a village. 我打算在一个小村子里度假。
He will be here in half an hour. 他一小时后到达这里。

(4)在有条件从句的主句中,一般不用 be going to, 而多用will。例如:
We’ll have a picnic if my father is free. 如果我父亲有空,我们会去野餐。

(5)be going to 表示根据目前迹象推断将要发生的事情,而在没有迹象表明的情况下进行的猜测用“will和be going to”皆可。例如:
Look at the clouds. It’s going to rain. 你看天上的云。快下雨了。
My God! We are going to crash. 天哪!我们快撞车了。
I think the weather will be nice.
I think the weather is going to be nice.
我想天会晴朗。

3

巩固练习

I. 选择填空。
1. — You look excited.
— Yes, I am. I _____ Jackie Chan’s new movie in Dalian this evening.
    A. was going to   
    B. went to   
    C. am going to   
    D. have gone to
2. There are many clouds coming. It _________   rain soon.
    A. will   
    B. is going to   
    C. looks like   
    D. likes
3. There _____ a talk show on CCTV-4 at nine this evening.
    A. will have    
    B. is going to be   
    C. is going to have    
    D. is having
4. — There _____ two football matches on TV tomorrow afternoon.
 — Really? That’s great.
    A. will have  
    B. are going to be  
    C. is going to be   
    D. are going to have
5. There is going to _____ a report ____ Chinese history in our school this evening.
    A. have, on    
    B. be, on    
    C. have, for    
    D. be, of


II. 完成句子,每空一词。
1. 我打算明天和朋友去野炊。
I ______ _____ _______ have a picnic with my friends.
2. 下个星期一你打算去干什么? 我想去打篮球。
What ______ ______ _______ _______ _______ next Monday?
I _____   ______   _____ play basketball.
3. 你妈妈这个周末去购物吗?是,她要去买一些水果。
_______ your mother ______ ______ go shopping this weekend?
Yes, she _______. She ______ _______ _______ buy some fruit.
4. 你们打算什么时候见面。
What time ______ you _______ _______ meet?
5. 如果天气好,我们明天去钓鱼。
If it _______ fine tomorrow, we _______ go fishing.


III. 句式转换,每空一词。
1. Nancy is going to go camping.(改为否定句)
Nancy ________ going to go camping.
2. I’ll go and join them.(改为否定句)
I ______ go _____ join them.
3. I’m going to get up at 6:30 tomorrow.(改为一般疑问句)
_______ ______ ______ to get up at 6:30 tomorrow?
4. We will meet at the bus stop at 10:30.(改为一般疑问句)
______ _______ meet at the bus stop at 10:30?
5. She is going to listen to music after school.(对划线部分提问)
_______   ______ she _______ _______ _______ after school?
6. My father and mother are going to see a play the day after tomorrow.(对划线部分提问)
_______   _______ ______ father and mother going to see a play?
7. We are going to play ping-pong on Saturday. (改为一般疑问句并作否定回答)
— _______ _______ going to play ping-pong on Saturday?
— _______, we _______.
8. He’s going to tell me all about it. (改为否定句)
He _______ _______ going to tell me all about it.
9. She is going to work hard at English this term. (对划线部分提问)
_______ she _______ this term?
10. They’re going to the Sun Island by bus. (对划线部分提问)
_______ _______they _______ _______ the Sun Island?
11. The students of Class Three have a field trip on Sunday. (用next Sunday改写)
The students of Class Three _______ _______ _______ _______ a field trip next Sunday.
12. Linda has lunch at school on Tuesday. (用next Tuesday改写)
Linda _______ _______ _______ _______ lunch at school next Tuesday.


IV. 用所给动词的适当形式填空。
1. Today is a sunny day. We are __________ (have) a picnic this afternoon.
2. Tom often ____________(go) to school on foot. But today is raining.
3. ­—What do you usually do at weekends?
—I usually __________ (watch) TV and __________(catch) insects(昆虫)?
4. —It’s Friday today. What is she going to do this weekend?
   —She ______________ (watch) TV and _________ (catch) insects.
5. —What ______________ (do) next Sunday?
—I ______________ (milk) cows.
6. Mary ____________ (visit) her grandparents tomorrow.

参考答案

I. 选择填空。
1. C。本题考查时态,根据时间状语this evening可知用一般将来时。A 项为过去将来时,不符合句意;B/D两项均表示“去了”;只有C项表示“将来去”,故选C。
2. B。本题考查be going to 与 will 的区别。句末有soon,句子用将来时,可排除C、D 两项。有某种迹象判断可能发生的事情用be going to表示将来。
3. B。有时间状语可知用将来时。there be 句型的一般将来时为:there will be 或there is going
to be,故选B。
4. B。此题考查there be结构的将来时,后接名词复数,谓语动词用are。
5. B。考查there be句型的将来时用be going to do形式;on 表示“关于、有关”。
II. 完成句子,每空一词。
1. am going to   
2. are you going to do;am going to   
3. Is; going to; is; is going to
4. are, going to    5. is; will
III. 句式转换,每空一词。
1. isn’t      2. won’t; or  
3. Are you going  
4. Will you  
5. What is; going to do
6. When are your   
7. Are you; No, aren’t   
8. is not   9. What’s, going to do
10. How are, going to   
11. are going to have   
12. is going to have
IV. 用所给词的适当形式填空。
1. going to have   2. goes  
3. watch; catch  
4. is going to watch; catch
5. are you going to do\will you do; am going to milk\will  

6. is going to visit\will visit

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